The following is an example of a guided
exploration approach to learning how to use a word processor (Carroll
1990, chapter 5, as cited in Kearsley 1994d).
Applying the principles of Carroll's Minimalist theory, a 94-page
training manual is replaced by 25 cards. Each card is self contained and includes a
meaningful task and error recognition information. The cards do not provide complete
step-by-step specifications but only key ideas or hints about what to do. Kearsley
reports that "in an experiment that compared the use of the cards versus the manual,
users learned the task in about half the time with the cards."